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???? 09-07-2011, 06:36 PM   #1
 
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????? ???????: Dec 2009
?????????: 577
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???? ??? ?????? is on a distinguished road
??????? ???????? ??????????

???? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ? ????
?????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ??????? Natural Balance ? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????? ? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ???????
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? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??? Neochetina ( ????? ??????? ) ?? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????



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???????

????????? Parasitoids
????????? Predators
?????? ??????? Pathogens


???? ?????? Parasitism

?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? Parasitoid ? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? Host

????? ???????? Predation

?? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ? ????? ????? ??? ? ???? ?????? ??????? ????????Predator ? ??????? ???? ???????? Prey

????? ?????? ?????? Pathogen

? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ????? ? ?????????? ? ??????????

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1- ?????? ??? ?????

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2- ?????? ??? ???????

???? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ???? ??? ?????? ? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ???????? Bracon ? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????
???? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ? ???? ? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ? ?? ??????? ???? ???????????? ? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ? ?????? ??????


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?????/00201225381569
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???? 09-08-2011, 09:51 PM   #2
 
?????? ??????? ahmedkibrahim83
 
????? ???????: Aug 2011
??????: Egypt,cairo
?????????: 41
???? ????? ???????: 0
ahmedkibrahim83 is on a distinguished road
M4

[marq="3;right;3;scroll"]????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????????:As a natural phenomenon[/marq]:

???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? "??????" ???? ???? ??????? (De Bach 1964)



????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????????:

???? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????? ???????? (De Bach 1973)

??? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? " ????????"? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????.

??? ?????? ???????? ??????????:

1- ??? ?????.

2- ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???????.

3- ???? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????.

4- ???? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ??????.

??? ????? ???????? ?????????? :Biological control agents :

????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ??:

1- ????????? Predators

2- ????????? Parasitoids

3- ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? Entomopathogenic micro organisms

??- ????????? ??????? ??????? Bacteria

??- ????????? ??????? ??????? Virus

??- ???????? ??????? ??????? Fungi

?- ?????????? ??????? ??????? Protozoa

4- ?????????? ??????? ??????? Nematodes



??? ???????? ???????? ??????????:

1- ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????.

2- ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? .

3- ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ????? ????.

???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????:

1-??? ????? Insectary stock (mass production) ??????? ????????.

2-??????? colonization( Release) ??? ???? ?????? ???????.

3-??? Recovery attempts ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ????????.



????": ????????? Predators

????? ????????:

?? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? predator ??????? ????? ??? ??????? prey???? ??????? ???? ? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????? (???? ?? ????? ) ?? ???? ?????? ( ???? ????? ) ??? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????? Coccinellidae ?? ???? ????? ??????? ? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??????? Newroptera

?? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????.

?????" ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ???? ????? (???? ????) ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????.



????? ????????:

????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???:

?- ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? Corabidae ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? Odonata????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????????? Dictyoptera

?- ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????.



?????: ????????? : Parasitoids

????? ??????:

?? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? parasitoid ??? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? Host ????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????.




????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ???:

1- ??????? ?????: Primary Parasitoids

??? ???? ????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????..

2- ??????? ??????: Hyper parasitoids

??? ???? ????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??????. ????? ????? ???? ????? ???? Secondary parasitism? ????? ???? ????? Tertiary parasitism ???? ????? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????.



???? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? :

1- ??????? ?????? Ecto parasitoids

????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???????.

2- ??????? ??????: Endo parasitoids

????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??????.





????? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ??????:

1- ??????? ?????: Egg parasitoids

??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? Trichogrammatidae ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? Trichogramma evanescens ????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?????? Chilo Agamemnon .



2- ???? ???? ????: Egg Larval parasitoids

???? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? Phaneratoma ocularis ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? Cryptoblabes gnidiella .



3- ???? ????: Larva parasitoids

???? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? Ecto paradsitoids ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??????Larva ?????? ????? ??????? ????? Ichneumonidae ???? ?????? Exeristes roborator ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????????? Pectinophosa gossypilla .

????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? Endo parasitoids ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? Brachonidae ( ??????) Apanteles sp ???? ????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???????.

???? ????? ?? ?????? ???? Endo Ecto ??? ????? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? .



4- ???? ?????Nymph parasitoid : :

??? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????.



5- ???? ???? ( ?? ?????) ?????: (Larva- pupa- parasitoid)

????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? (???? ????- ?????) ?? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????????? Barylypa sp ???? ????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?????.





6- ???? ?????: Puoa parasitoid

???? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??????? Prepupa ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ???????????? Brachymeria famosata ???? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? Chalcididae ?? ???? ?????? ??????? Hymenoptera



7- ???? ?????? ???????: Adult parasitoid

??? ??????? Perilitus sp ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????.



????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ?????:

1- ??????? ?????? ???????: Polyphagus parasitoids

????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????.

2- ??????? ?????? ???????: Oligophagus parasitoids

????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????.

3- ??????? ????? ??????: Monophagus parasitoids

????? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????? .

????? : ahmedkibrahim83
?/ ???? ???? ??????? ????
???? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????
???? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? (E.B.D.A)
????? 0020172350066
????? 0020129098439
????? 00201501829552
???? 002026565930
????? ahmed.kamal@sekem.com
????? ahmedkibrahim83@gmail.com
??? ?????   ?? ?? ??????
???? 09-09-2011, 01:01 PM   #3
 
?????? ??????? ???? ???????
 
????? ???????: Jul 2010
?????????: 1,161
???? ????? ???????: 6
???? ??????? is on a distinguished road
???????

???? ???

????? : ???? ???????
???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ????
??? ?????   ?? ?? ??????
???? 09-09-2011, 05:49 PM   #4
 
?????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????
 
????? ???????: Dec 2009
?????????: 577
???? ????? ???????: 5
???? ??? ?????? is on a distinguished road
???????

????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? / ???? ???????

????? ??????? / ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????

????? : ???? ??? ??????
? / ???? ??? ??????
?????? ?????
?????? ????? ??????? ???????
T.O.A.O
????? ?????? ????????? ???????

,?????????? ??????????? ???????????

???? ??????? ?? ??????
??? ????????? ?? ??????
???? ????? ?? ??? ????????
?????/00201225381569
?????/00201284724444



??? ?????   ?? ?? ??????
???? 10-22-2011, 11:37 PM   #5
 
?????? ??????? ????? ?????
 
????? ???????: Feb 2010
??????: ??????? ??????? ????????
?????????: 2,239
???? ????? ???????: 7
????? ????? is on a distinguished road
???????


????? ???? .. ????? ???? .. ???????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????????

???? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? .. ???? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????
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??? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????????
???? ???? ?????

????? ???????

??? ?????   ?? ?? ??????
???? 10-24-2011, 01:24 AM   #6
 
?????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????
 
????? ???????: Dec 2009
?????????: 577
???? ????? ???????: 5
???? ??? ?????? is on a distinguished road
???????

???? ???????/ ????? ?????
?????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ???????
???? ????? ??

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? / ???? ??? ??????
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T.O.A.O
????? ?????? ????????? ???????

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???? ??????? ?? ??????
??? ????????? ?? ??????
???? ????? ?? ??? ????????
?????/00201225381569
?????/00201284724444



??? ?????   ?? ?? ??????
???? 10-24-2011, 08:26 AM   #7
 
?????? ??????? ????
 
????? ???????: Jan 2011
?????????: 1,443
???? ????? ???????: 5
???? is on a distinguished road
???????

?????? ????? ????? ????

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??? ?????   ?? ?? ??????
???? 04-15-2012, 05:15 PM   #8
 
?????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????
 
????? ???????: Dec 2009
?????????: 577
???? ????? ???????: 5
???? ??? ?????? is on a distinguished road
???????

???? ????? ??????? / ????

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T.O.A.O
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?????/00201225381569
?????/00201284724444



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???? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? 4 09-18-2011 05:25 PM
??? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ( ????? ?????) ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? 4 05-28-2011 12:58 PM
??? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ( ????? ??????) ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? 1 05-18-2011 01:23 AM
???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????? 1 07-26-2010 12:48 AM

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