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???? 01-04-2011, 04:48 PM   #1
 
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????? ???????: Oct 2009
??????: ?????? - ?????? - ???
?????????: 570
???? ????? ???????: 5
?. ???? ?????? is on a distinguished road
M4 ????? ??????? ??????? - drainage




????? ???????



??????:

?? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ????????.
?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????. (Surface drainage) .

??? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? (Internal drainagwe).

?????? ???? ????? ????? Indication of drainage problems:

???? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????:

1- ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????.
2- ???? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??????.
3- ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??????.
4- ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????.
5- ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????.
6- ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????.
7- ??? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???.
8- ???? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??????.
9- ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? Seolges ??????? Dock ?????? ????? Water grass.

????? ????? ???????:

???? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? 50% ?? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? 20% ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????? 30% ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ???????:

1- ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? 22-35% ??? ????? ??????? ?????.
2- ????? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????.

3- ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ?? ???:

?- ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????.
??- ????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????????.
??- ????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ??????.
??- ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????.
??- ????? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ???????.

?????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ???:

?- ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? Humid and sub humid dregions:

???? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? 1000-1500 ?? ??????. ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? 500-1000 ?? ??????. ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? Very wet ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? 2000 ??????.

?????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ??:

1- ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????.
2- ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ????? Under ground water ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ????????.
3- ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????.
4- ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????.
5- ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????.

?- ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? Aria and Semiaoid dregions under reclamation:

???? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? 250 ?? ?? ?????. ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? 250-500 ?? ??????.

?????? ????? ?? ??? ???????:

1- ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? 1-3 ?/????.
2- ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ?? 0.2-0.3 % ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? 0.01% .
3- ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?? ???? ????.
4- ?????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????????.

?- ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ?????????:

?????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ??:

1- ??? ????? ????? (???????) ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????.
2- ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? CO2 ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ?????.
3- ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????.
4- ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? Subirrigation.
5- ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????.

???? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??????:

???? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????:

1- ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ??????.
2- ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????.
3- ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????.
4- ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?????.
5- ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????.
6- ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ?? ????? ???????????.

??????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??????:

?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ????:

1- ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ???????.
2- ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????.
3- ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????.
4- ????????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ????????.
5- ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????.
6- ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????????.

????? ????? : Drainage Investigations:

?? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????.

??? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????????. ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ????. ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????.

???? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ??:

1- ??????? ??????????? : Reconnaissance ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????. ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????.
2- ????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??????.
3- ????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ????????.
4- ????? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????.
5- ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ??????? ????????.
6- ????? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????.
7- ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ????????.
8- ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????.
9- ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????.

???????? ??? ??????? Subsurface investigation:

?????? ???? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????:

1- ???? ?????? ??? :

??- ???? ??????: ????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??????.

??-???? ????????: ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ????????? Electrical Coneduotiriuty ??????????/?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? 2 ???????/?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????.

??- ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????:

- ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????.
- ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????.
- ???? ??????? Plasticity landese ????? ???????? Stickpaint ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? Drainuge prosity ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ????????.

??- ??? ????? ??????: ???? ????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ???? 5 ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? 3-9 ? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??????.

??? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????.

??- ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???????: ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? 1-3 ? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????: ??? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?????:

1- ???????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????.





???? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? Hooghaudt



2- ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????? Ca ????????? Mg ???????? Na ?????????? K.
3- ??? ??????? (PH) ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????.
4- ????? ???????? ????? ??????
5- ????? ???????? ????? ????????
6- ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????.
7- ???? ??????? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??????.
8- ???? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????.

2- ????? ?????? ??????? ????????:

?? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????:

??- ???? ???????: ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??.

??- ???? ???? ???????????? : ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?????:

1) ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???.
2) ????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??????.
3) ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????.
4) ????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ????.

??- ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????: ???? ????? ?????:

1) ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????.
2) ???? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????.
??- ????? ????? ??????????????: ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ????????.

??- ????? ?????? ??????? : ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ????????? ? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????? ???????.

1- ???? ????? Observation wells:

??? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ???? 2-4 ? ????? 3-5 ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? Auger halls ???? ?????? ??? 1.5-2.5 -4 ? ? ???????? ???? 6 ?? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????. ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ?????????? Bitmminous impsegrauted fifer ?? ?? ?????????.

???? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? 30-50 ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????.

2- ??????????? Piezometers:

????????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ????????? ????? ?????? ????? 2-5 ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???????? (???????) Auger ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????.

?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???????.

????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? 2-4 ??????? ?????? ?????? 1.5-3-4.5-6 ? ???? ??? ????? 30-50 ?? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????.

????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? 10 ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? 20 ?? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ??????.

???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??????????? ???? ???? ??? ????? 1-1.5 ? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? 1.5 ? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? (Equipoteutial lines) ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? Steam lines ????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???.

??????? ??????? ?? ????? Factors affecting drainage:

???? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ????:

??- ??????? ?????? Water Supply: ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????. ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????? ????. ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???????.

??- ????? ??????? Prosperities of Solis: : ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????. ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????. ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??????.

??- ??????????? Topography: ?? ????????? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?????.

??- ???????? Planets: ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???????.

????? ???????: Types of Drains:

??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????:

1- ??????? ???????? Open Drains
2- ??????? ??????? Covered Drains .
3- ??????? ??????? ?????? Wells Drains.

?????: ??????? ????????: Open Drains:

??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ???????. ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????. ???? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ????: ??????? ???????? (????????) ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ????????. ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????.

????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? 120 ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? 150-300 ?? ???????? ???????? ?? 250-400 ?? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?? 150 ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????:

1- ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????.
2- ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????.
3- ????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????.

????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????:

????? ??????? ????????:

1- ?????? ????? ??????? ???????.
2- ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????.
3- ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????.
4- ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????.





???? ???? ?????? ?????? (???????)



5- ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????.
6- ???? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????.

???? ??????? ????????:

1- ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ????.
2- ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? 15-20% ?? ??????? ??????.
3- ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????.
4- ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??????.
5- ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????.
6- ???? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????.


?????: ??????? ??????? Covered Drains:

??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? (??????) ??????????. ???? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????.

????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????.

???? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???????.

???? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? Mains ?? ???????? Collectors ?? ??????? Submains ?? ???????? Laterals ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????. ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????.





????? ??????? ???????:

1- ???? ??????? ???????? ?? 15-20% ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ????????.
2- ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????.
3- ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????.
4- ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???? 17% ???? ???? ??????.





???? ??? ?????? ???????



5- ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????.
6- ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???????.
7- ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? 50 ??? ??? ???? ??????? ????????.
8- ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????.



???? ??????? ???????:

1- ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????.
2- ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????.
3- ????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????.
4- ????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????.
5- ????? ????? ?????? ????????.
6- ??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????????? 3?% ????? ??????? ???????? ????????.
7- ?? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ????????. ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ???????.


?????? ????? ??????: ???? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ???:

1- ???????? ????????Clayar Tilepipes: ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ???? 30 ?? ????? 10 ?? ????? 1.5 ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ????? 30 ?? ?????? 10 ?? ???????? 1.5 ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? 30 ?? ????? ?????? ??? 5-15 ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? (?? ???? ?? ???? ???) ????????? (????????) ?????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????.
2- ???????? ????????? Concrete Pipes: ??????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? 30 ?? ????? ?????? ??? 5-10 ?? ????? 1.5-2 ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????.
3- ???????? ??????????? : Plastic Pipes: ??? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ????????. ????? ???? ?????? 5 ?? ????? ?????? ??? 5-6 ? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???? 2.5 ?? ???? 5-6 ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?????? 40 ???. ???? ??????? ?????? ????? 0.8-1.4 ?? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? 150-400 ? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????????:

1- ????? ??????.
2- ??? ?????.
3- ??? ???? ?????
4- ???? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?????.
5- ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??????.

?????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ???.

4- ???????? ????????? Strimol Pipes ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? 5 ?? ?????? 30?? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????.


????? ???????? (???????) ?? ?????? (filters):


?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ????????.

????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????? Filters ???? ?????? ??? 5-10 ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???????.

??? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????.

????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????:

1- ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????.
2- ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????.
3- ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??????.
4- ?? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????.

???? ????? ???????? ?? :

1- ????? Cravel: ??? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? 0.5-1 ?? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???????. ??? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????.
2- ??????? Peat : ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? 70-10 ?? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????.
3- ???? ???? glass feber : ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? 0.2-0.5 ?? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ?????.
4- ????? ??????? glass wool: ??? ???? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ???? 0.5-1 ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ???.

???????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??????.

????? ??????? ???????:

????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????:

1- ???? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ????? 10-30 ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????.
2- ???? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ?? 100 ? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?? 150? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?????.
3- ??? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? 1000 ? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?? 25 ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????.
4- ???? ????? ????? Drainage fector ???? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????? ???? ????? 1-2 ?? / ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????. ????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????.
5- ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? 10-20 ?.
6- ???? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????????.
7- ?? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???? Interceptor drain ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???????.
8- ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? 15-45 ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????
9- ??? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?????.
10- ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????.
11- ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? 10 ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??????.
12- ??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????.
13- ????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? 50 ?? ?? ??? ???????.
14- ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????.
15- ???? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????.
16- ???? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ???.

??? ?????? ??????? Depth and spacing of Drains

????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????:

1- ????? ?????? ?????????
2- ??? ???????? ???? ??????
3- ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????.
4- ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????.

??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????:

1- ????????? ??? ?????
2- ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?????.
3- ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????.
4- ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????.
5- ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?????.
6- ????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ???.
7- ??? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????.

???? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ?? 90 ?? ?? ????? ?????? ??? 120 ?? ?????? ??? ??? ????? 100?.

??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ????? 10-20 ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????. ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?????.

???? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ??????? Gardner and Fireman ??? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? 200 ?? ??? ???? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? 180-200 ?? ?? ??? ?????.

???? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? Drainage Requirements ???? ????? ???????:

?????? : ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????. ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????.

???????: ?? ?????????? ????????.

???? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????. ?????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? Neal ??? 1934 ??????? ????? Glover ???????? Schilfgaarde ??? 1963 ??????? ?????? Hooghoudt ??? 1940 ??????? ????? ??????? Ernest and Boumans ??????? ?????? Kirkham ??????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? 1915 ??????? ????? Luthin ??? 1959 ??????? ?? Dumm ??? 1954 ??????? ???????? Kostikov ??????.

?? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? Hooghoudt ??? :

8 K2dh + 4K1h2 = L
g g

??? ?? :

L = ??????? ??? ??????? ??????
K1= ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?/???
K2 = ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?/???
h = ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????.





???? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????


g = ???? ?????? ?3 / ??????.
d = ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ????????.
??? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ????? 150?? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? 130-200 ? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? 30-50 ?? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????. ????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ????????? ???? 30?? ???? 10?? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????.


??????: ??????? ??????? (??????) :

?? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ????.

?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ????.


??????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????:

1- ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????.
2- ????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ???????.
3- ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ????????.

?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????:

1- ??? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? 10?.
2- ??? ?? ???? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????.
3- ???? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????.
4- ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ????????.
5- ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????.
6- ???? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????.
7- ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????.

??????? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ????? ??????:

1- ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ???????.
2- ?????? ????? ??????.
3- ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????.
4- ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????.

??????? ??? ?????? (???????):

????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? :

1- ??? ????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? (???????).
2- ??? ????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? (???????).
3- ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? (???????) ????? ????? ???????.
??? ?????   ?? ?? ??????
???? 01-04-2011, 07:00 PM   #2
Banned
 
????? ???????: Jan 2010
??????: ??? Egypt
?????????: 4,086
???? ????? ???????: 0
?????? is on a distinguished road
???????

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??????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ????
??? ?????   ?? ?? ??????
???? 01-24-2012, 12:11 AM   #3
 
????? ???????: Jan 2012
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????? ????? (???????)

??????? ???????? (Tags)
???????, ?????, drainage, ???????

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??????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? : ???? ????? ???? ??????? 9 04-29-2010 01:01 AM
??????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? 2 03-24-2010 04:25 PM
???? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? 3 03-21-2010 05:55 PM
???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????? (??? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????) ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? 1 07-10-2009 02:44 PM

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